CoTradeCo glossary
of critical industrial safety terms and other important words, abbreviations, and acronyms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | X | Y

A

Accident Costs

Direct and indirect costs associated with an accident. May be a monetary, resource, or production loss.

Air permeability

Measure of air flow through a fabric. [fabric characteristics]

Air-purifying respirator

Breathing apparatus with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister designed to remove air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element. [air quality]

Alternating Current (AC)

Current flows back and forth (a cycle) through a conductor. In each cycle, the electrons flow first in one direction, then the other. [energy,electrical]

Anti-static Performance

Measures attraction and dissipation of electric charge on fabric. [fabric characteristics]

Anti-fatigue Properties

Cushioning qualities found in matting that alleviates foot pressure, stimulates blood circulation and helps reduce stress on the lower back, leg joints, and major muscle groups. [ergonomic characteristics]

APF (Assigned Protection Factor)

OSHA: Level of respiratory protection that is expected to be provided to employees who wear respirators when the employer implements a continuing, effective respiratory protection program. See also MUC (Maximum Use Concentration). [abbreviation,air quality]

Arc Flash

An explosive release of energy caused by an electrical arc.

An arc flash (or arc blast) event is a type of electrical explosion that results from a low impedance connection to ground or another voltage phase also called a “short” in an electrical system. A short circuit can occur anywhere in an electrical system, usually during maintenance work when the unexpected occurs. For instance a tool dropping, a wire slipping out of your hand a mechanical accessory falling loose and so on. A dangerous arc flash can only occur if the fault current is very high – in the range 1000 amps or more. The massive energy released in the fault instantly vaporizes the metal conductors involved, blasting molten metal and expanding plasma outward with extreme force. A typical arc flash incident can be inconsequential but could conceivably easily produce a more severe explosion. The result of the violent event can cause destruction of equipment involved, fire, and injury not only to the worker but also to nearby people. [thermal,fire] – [wikipedia ]

Arc Rating

A value of the energy necessary to pass through any given fabric to cause with 50% probability a second or third degree burn. This value is measured in calories/cm2. The necessary Arc Rating for an article of clothing is determined by a Hazard/Risk Assessment and the resulting HRC. Usually measured in terms of ATPV or EBT. [standards]

Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV)

See ATPV. [thermal,fire]

Assigned Protection Factor (APF)

See APF. [air quality]

ASTM (American Society of Testing of Materials)

ASTM publishes both performance specifications and test methods for evaluating protective clothing and equipment. [standards]

ATPV (Arc Thermal Performance Value)

A reported value from electric arc testing. Basically, it is the measure of how much heat can be exposed to a flame resistant garment before a second degree burn injury is expected to occur. [abbreviation,thermal,fire]

Atmosphere-supplying respirator

A respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units. [air quality]

B

Best Management Practices

“Best Management Practices” or BMP include operating procedures and products to control site runoff, spills, leaks and drainage from raw material storage. When filing a SWPPP, a detailed description of BMPs planned for use at the site is required. [compliance]

Bitmap

A set of bits that represents a graphic image, with each bit or group of bits corresponding to a pixel in the image, represented as a two dimensional array of brightness values for pixels. A bitmap is characterised by the width and height of the image in pixels and the number of bits per pixel which determines the number of shades of grey or colours it can represent. [computer]

See also Vector Graphics [computer]

Bending Stiffness

Force required to bend fabric. [fabric characteristics]

BMP

See Best Management Practices. [abbreviation,compliance]

See Bitmap. [abbreviation,computer]

Breaking Load

Load required to break (pull apart) fabric

Bursting Strength (Mullen Burst)

Force required to rupture a knit fabric with an expandable diaphram. [fabric characteristics]

C

Calorie

The energy required to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius at one atmosphere pressure. Second-degree burns occur at 1.2 calories per centimeter squared per second (cal/cm2). [energy]

A Cigarette lighter placed under your finger for 1 second equals roughly a 1 calorie burn.

A 100 cal/cm2 blast can reach temperatures of up to 35,000 degrees Fahrenheit in the center, and 11,000 degrees on the perimeter

Canister or cartridge

In a respiratory system a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container. [air quality]

CCOHS

Canada’s National Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. [standards]

Chemical resistance

The degree to which industrial matting and other products can withstand the erosive qualities of chemicals found in applicable environments. [plastic/chemical charateristic]

D

Decalon®

An exclusive NoTrax® fiber constructed of high Denier polypropylene yarn. Products manufactured with Decalon® offer superb wear resistance, exceptional moisture retention, and crisp pattern appearance in coordinating colors. [plastic/chemical charateristic] – [trademarked technology]

Demand respirator

An atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation. [air quality]

Denier (Yarn)

Weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn. [fabric characteristics]

Thickness of the yarn strand. Combined with the faceweight (ounces of yarn per square yard), and the density or volume of yearn strands, it is a critical factor in the performance, quality and durability of an entrance mat. [fabric characteristics]

Denier Per Filament

Weight in grams of 9000 meters of a single filament. [fabric characteristics]

Direct Current (DC)

Current flows in only one direction. [energy,electrical]

dust mask

See also Filtering Facepiece. [air quality]

Dyna-Shield®

A revolutionary new process perfected by Superior Manufacturing Group that creates a tough protective barrier on the surface of foam anti-fatigue mats. Dyna-Shield® producs are more resistant to wear than traditional sponge matting. [plastic/chemical charateristic] – [trademarked technology]

E

Electric Arc

The passage of substantial electric current through ionized air. [thermal,fire] (see ARC FLASH)

Electricity

the flow of an atoms electrons through a conductor. [energy,electrical]

Electronically Safe Work Condition

When the conductor or circuit part to be worked on has been disconnected from energized parts, locked/tagged in accordance with established standards, tested to ensure the absence of voltage, and grounded if determined necessary. [energy,electrical]

End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI)

See ESLI. [air quality]

Escape-only respirator

A respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit. [air quality]

ESLI (End-of-service-life indicator)
A system that warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection, for example, that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective. [air quality]

F

Filtering facepiece (dust mask)

A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium. [air quality]

Fit factor

A quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn. [air quality]

Fit test

The use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual. See also QLFT (Qualitative fit test) and QNFT (Quantitative fit test). [air quality]

Flame resistant

The characteristic of a fabric to resist ignition and to self extinguish if ignited. [thermal,fire]

Abbreviated as FR.

Flame retardant

A chemical substance used to impart flame resistance – not part of the basic fibers chemistry. Flame retardant treatments can diminish overtime or with use. [thermal,fire]

Flammability (Vertical Flame Test)

Measures char damage length, afterflame and afterglow time on a 3″ × 12″ fabric sample exposed to flame at its lower edge for 12 seconds. (Contact us to get a free burn-swatch of Benchmark FR ring-spun cotton to perform your own test!). [thermal,fire]

Flash-fire

A sudden, unexpected and intense fire caused by ignition of flammable solids, liquids, gases or dusts. [thermal,fire]

Flash Hazard

A dangerous condition caused by the release of energy from an electric arc. [electrical,fire,thermal]

Flash Hazard Analysis

A study investigating the potential exposure to arc-flash energy that a worker faces while performing a specific job task. The data collected in a Flash Hazard Analysis is used for the purpose of injury prevention and the determination of safe work practices and the appropriated levels of FR clothing and PPE.. [fire,standards]

Flash Protection Boundary

The distance from an exposed live part within which a person could receive a second-degree burn if an electrical arc were to occur. [fire,standards]

FR

See flame resistant. [abbreviation]

G

Ground

A conducting connection – which may or may not be intentional – between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, can be via some conducting body that leads to the earth. [energy,electrical]

GSII

A technology incorporated into NoTrax® industrial floor matting products that allow them to excel in harsh industrial environments where aggresive chemicals, oils, and greases are commonly found, and where traditional matting often fails. [plastic/chemical charateristic] – [trademarked technology]

H

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic preventive approach to food safety and pharmaceutical safety that addresses physical, chemical, and biological hazards as a means of prevention rather than finished product inspection. HACCP is used in the food industry to identify potential food safety hazards, so that key actions, known as Critical Control Points (CCP’s) can be taken to reduce or eliminate the risk of the hazards being realized. The system is used at all stages of food production and preparation processes including packaging, distribution, etc.


HACCP has been increasingly applied to industries other than food, such as cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This method, which in effect seeks to plan out unsafe practices, differs from traditional “produce and test” quality assurance methods which are less successful and inappropriate for highly perishable foods. In the US, HACCP compliance is regulated by 21 CFR part 120 and 123. Similarly, FAO/WHO published a guideline for all governments to handle the issue in small and less developed food businesses. [standards,food safety,plastic/chemical characteristics]

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

See HACCP. [standards,food safety,plastic/chemical characteristics]

Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)

See HCS. [standards,plastic/chemical characteristics]

Hazardous Material Identification System (HMIS)

See HMIS. [standards,plastic/chemical characteristics]

HCS (Hazard Communication Standard)

A standard enacted by OSHA in 1983 to effectively communicate to workers when they are being exposed to hazardous chemicals. HCS requires chemical manufacturers to review scientific evidence concerning the hazards of a material to determine if they are hazardous; Requires manufacturers to product material safety data sheets (MSDS) and container labels which must be sent with products. Requires employers to develop a written hazard communication program and provide information and training to employees about the hazards of chemicals found in the workplace. See also HMIS. [standards,plastic/chemical characteristics]

HEPA (High efficiency particulate air) filter

A filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing monodisperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. The equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters. [air quality]

Hertz (Hz)

Number of cycles per second. [energy,electrical]

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter

See HEPA. [air quality]

HMIS (Hazardous Material Identification System)

Helps satisfy HCS requirments by providing a simple format for communicating hazard determinations, offering a basic written hazard communication program, and simplifyng the employee training and information process. Standardizes the the presentation of chemical information. HMIS communicates 4 categories: Health, Flammability, Reactivity, and Protective Equipment.

Reading an HMIS chart:


The first 3 categories Health, Flammability, and Reactivity are measured by a number, 0-4

  • 4 = Very dangerous
  • 0 = No significant risk

The fourth category, Protective Equipment uses a letter system similar to that of the NFPA.


A = safety glasses
B = safety glasses and gloves
C = safety glasses, gloves and an apron
D = face shield, gloves and an apron
E = safety glasses, gloves and a dust respirator
F = safety glasses, gloves, apron and a dust respirator
G = safety glasses, a vapor respirator
H = splash goggles, gloves, apron and a vapor respirator
I = safety glasses, gloves and a dust/vapor respirator
J = splash goggles, gloves, apron and a dust/vapor respirator
K = airline hood or mask, gloves, full suit and boots
L – Z = custom PPE specified by employer

HRC (Hazard Risk Category)

The classification of the listed task according to the type of hazard present when performing the task. Zero represents minimal risk, four represents the greatest risk. [abbreviation,standards]

The five Hazard/Risk categories are specified by the chart listed in NFPA 70E. The chart, based on specific job tasks, ranges from HRC 0 (which is low risk and allows for 100% untreated cotton), up to HRC 4 (which is high risk and requires FR clothing with a minimum arc rating of 40). The HRC is used to determine the necessary arc rating of a garment worn during a given job task. [standards]

  • Level 0: Little to no risk
  • Level 4: extreme risk

  • Download NFPA hazard classification pdf v2004 uploaded 2007-12-01
  • Also see our article about common HRC 2 misconceptions

  • I

    IDLH (Immediately dangerous to life or health)

    An atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual’s ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. [air quality]

    Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)

    See IDLH. [air quality]

    Industrial Hygiene

    The science of keeping people safe at work. Industrial Hygiene is devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, prevention, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace which may cause sickness, impaired health and well being, or significant discomfort among workers. [standards]

    Inherently Flame Resistant

    The flame resistance properites are a result of the chemistry of the material (fiber). Flame resistance will not diminish over time or with use. [thermal,fire]

    L

    Limited Approach Boundary

    The distance from an exposed live part within which a shock hazard exists. [standards]

    Light-fastness

    Measures change in knit or woven fabric color after exposure to light from a xenon arc. [fabric characteristics]

    Loose-fitting facepiece

    A respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face. [air quality]

    Lockout/Tagout (LOTO)

    See LOTO [standards]

    LOI (Limiting Oxygen Index)

    Determines minimum oxygen content (%) in air that will sustain combustion of a material. [abbreviation,thermal,fire]

    LOTO (Lockout/Tagout)

    The standard contains definitive criteria for establishing an effective program for locking out or tagging out energy isolating devices and requires training for authorized and affected employees. [abbreviation,electricity,standards]

    See OSHA official LOTO page

    M

    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

    See MSDS. [standards,plastic/chemical charateristic]

    Maximum Extent Practicable

    Stormwater permits require that the discharge of pollutants into storm drains be reduced to the “maximum extent practicable”. [compliance]

    Maximum Use Concentration (MUC)

    See MUC. [air quality]

    MEP

    See Maximum Extent Practicable. [abbreviation,compliance]

    MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)

    Documentation detailing hazards associated with a chemical, the chemicals proper use, disposal, and cleanup. [standards,plastic/chemical charateristic]

    MUC (Maximum Use Concentration)

    OSHA: Maximum atmospheric concentration of a hazardous substance from which an employee can be expected to be protected when wearing a respirator. See also APF (Assigned Protection Factor). [abbreviation,air quality]

    The maximum atmospheric concentration of a hazardous substance from which an employee can be expected to be protected when wearing a respirator, and is determined by the assigned protection factor of the respirator or class of respirators and the exposure limit of the hazardous substance. The MUC usually can be determined mathematically by multiplying the assigned protection factor specified for a respirator by the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL), permissible exposure limit, short term exposure limit, ceiling limit, peak limit, or any other exposure limit used for the hazardous substance. [abbreviation,air quality]

    Mullen Burst

    (see Bursting Strength) [fabric characteristics]

    N

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

    NPDES is the technical name for EPA’s stormwater management regulations. Regulated entities must comply with NPDES, 40 CFR 122.26 (1999). [compliance]

    Needlepunch

    A manufacturing process for carpet matting, needlepunch is engineered with a unique blend of 4 Denier thicknesses of polypropylene yarn ranging from very fine to very thick. Needlepunch products are typically more durable, offering better crush resistance and wearability due to the density of the yarn used in the proces. [fabric characteristics] (see also Tufted)

    Negative pressure respirator (tight fitting)

    A respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. [air quality]

    NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)

    NFPA writes voluntary compliance standards related to the Fire Service and other industries. Also works directly with OSHA for establishing legal regulations for electrical safety (see NFPA 70E). [abbreviation,standards]

    NFPA.org

    NFPA 70E

    OSHA bases its electrical safety mandates on NFPA 70E®: Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace®. OSHA evaluates compliance with its electrical safety regulations, OSHA 1910 Subpart S and OSHA 1926 Subpart K, using the comprehensive information in NFPA 70E. While OSHA tells you what to do to avoid electrical dangers, this vital Standard tells you how. [standards]

    See also Ratings, standards, and regulations: NFPA 70E in our resource library.

    NIOSH

    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. [abbreviation,standards]

    Niru®

    Niru® is the trademarked name for nitrile rubber compound. [plastic/chemical characteristics] – [trademarked technology]

    Nitrile Rubber

    A synthetic rubber specifically designed for harsh environments providing superior oil, grease, animal fat, and chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, gas permeability, and thermal stability. [plastic/chemical characteristics]

    Non-Point Source Pollution

    This term is synonymous with “stormwater runoff”. Unlike stormwater pollution, “point source pollution” can be easily attributed to a single source, such as a catastrophic leak from a storage tank. “Non-point source pollution” (stormwater runoff) has many contributors, e.g., oil leaks from vehicles in parking lots, sediment from multiple sources, a chemical or oil sheen from drums, tanks, equipment or raw materials stored outdoors. [compliance]

    NPDES

    See National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. [abbreviation,compliance]

    NRR (Noise reduction rating)

    NRR stands for Noise Reduction Rating. The EPA has selected the NRR as the descriptor of hearing protector effectiveness to be used on labels required by US EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 211, Subpart B. Although hearing protectors can be recommended for protection against the harmful effects of impulsive noise, the NRR is based on the attenuation of continuous noise and may not be an accurate indicator of the protection provided against impulsive noise. [abbreviation,standards]

    O

    Ohm’s Law:

    Current = Voltage/Resistance [energy,electrical]

    OSHA:

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA’s was formed in 1971 to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths. Congress created OSHA under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon on December 29, 1970. Penalties for OSHA violations range from $0 to $70,000 depending on the risk of harm to employees. [abbreviation,standards]

    Oxygen deficient atmosphere

    An atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume. [air quality]

    P

    PAPR (Powered air-purifying respirator)

    An air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering. [air quality]

    Personal Protection/Protective Equipment (PPE)

    See PPE. [standards]

    Positive pressure respirator

    A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator. [air quality]

    Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR)

    See PAPR. [air quality]

    PPE (Personal Protection/Protective Equipment)

    Devices (clothing, accessories, equipment) worn by the worker to protect against hazards in the environment. Respirators, gloves, and hearing protectors are examples. There are four levels of PPE: A, B, C, D. Level A offers the highest level of protection and Level D offers the lowest level of protection. [abbreviation,standards]

    PPM

    Parts Per Million. 10000 ppm = 1%. The number of “parts” by weight of a substance per million parts of the substance being tested (e.g. PPM of fluoride in water). This unit is commonly used to represent pollutant concentrations. Large concentrations are expressed in percentages. [abbreviation,plastic/chemical charateristic]

    Imperial equivalent to Milligrams Per Liter.

    Pages Per Minute. The number of pages a printer can print per minute. [abbreviation,computer]

    Pulses Per Minute. [electromagnetic]

    Pulse Position Modulation.

    Portable PixMap file format. Part of the Netpbm format which pecifies rules for exchanging graphics files and also includes PGM (Portable GrayMap file format) and PBM (Portable BitMap file format). These file formats are sometimes referred t collectively as the PNM format (portable anymap). [abbreviation,computer]

    Pressure demand respirator

    A positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation. [air quality]

    Prohibited Approach Boundary

    The distance from an exposed live part within which work is considered the same as making contact with the live part. [standards]

    PVC compounds

    Polyvinyl Chloride is a plastic compound used in a variety of manufacturing processes and end products. PVC is know for its durability, resistance to moisture, versatility, and its ability to withstand harsh environments. [abbreviation,plastic/chemical characteristics]

    Q

    QLFT (Qualitative fit test)

    A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual’s response to the test agent. [abbreviation,air quality,standards]

    QNFT (Quantitative fit test)

    An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator. [abbreviation,air quality,standards]

    Qualified Person

    One who has the skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of the equipment and installations and has received safety training on the hazards involved. [standards]

    While referred to by OSHA and various standards and training, it is rarely given an explicit definition per circumstance. Typically a common sense rule of proper training, thorough understanding of the equipment and processes for use and installation are part of the definition of a qualified person. Informally one should never consider themselves a qualified person if their knowledge base does not make them directly comfortable peforming the task presented. [standards]

    Qualitative fit test (QLFT)

    See QLFT. [air quality,standards]

    Quantitative fit test (QNFT)

    See QNFT. [air quality,standards]

    R

    Resistance

    Anything that impedes the flow of electrons through a conductor and is measured in ohms. [energy,electrical]

    Restricted Approach Boundary

    The area near an exposed live part that may be crossed only by qualified persons using appropriate shock prevention techniques and proper FR clothing and PPE. [standards]

    S

    SCBA (Self-contained breathing apparatus)

    An atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user. [abbreviation,air quality]

    Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)

    See SCBA. [air quality]

    Staple cut length

    Length of uncrimped staple fibers. [fabric characteristics]

    Stoll Curve

    A plot of thermal energy and time used to predict the onset of pain sensation and a second degree burn, in human tissue. [thermal,fire]

    Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan

    Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan. The SWPPP is an erosion, sediment and waste chemical control plan. All regulated entities must file a SWPPP with the EPA to be granted a stormwater permit. [compliance]

    Stormwater Runoff

    Differs from stormwater pollution, “point source pollution” that is easily attributed to a single source. “Non-point source pollution” (stormwater runoff) has many contributors, e.g., oil leaks from vehicles in parking lots, sediment from multiple sources, a chemical or oil sheen from drums, tanks, equipment or raw materials stored outdoors. [compliance]

    Surface Appearance

    Evaluates knit or woven fabric smoothness after repeated home launderings. [fabric characteristics]

    SWPPP

    See Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan. [abbreviation,compliance]

    T

    Thermal Conductivity

    Rate at which heat will flow through a material. [thermal,fire]

    Thermal Protection

    The resistance to flame and associated thermal transfer through the garment. [thermal,fire]

    TPP (Thermal Protective Performance)

    A fabric specimen is exposed with a combination of radiant and convective energy. The total energy required to cause second-degree burn injury to human tissue is determined based on heat transfer through the fabric specimen and the Stoll second-degree burn criteria. Single and multiple layer fabric specimens can be tested. [thermal,fire]

    Tufted

    An alternative process to needlepunch for manufacturing carpet matting, tufted products are sewn into a backing using a finer yarn. Tufted mats generally are less dense and offer better moisture retention. Tufted products also have more flexibility with colors and patterns providing a more aesthetic finished product. [fabric characteristics] (see also Needlepunch)

    U

    UniFusion™

    A revolutionary new bonding technology that uses heat and pressure to fuse a floor matting top surface to a base material. The resulting finished product is virtually a single piece, thereby eliminating the possibility of de-lamination. [plastic/chemical characteristic] – [trademarked technology]

    V

    Voltage
    The force that causes electricity to flow through a conductor and is measured in volts. [energy,electrical]
    Vector Graphics

    A format for creating and storying images on a computer. A method of electronically coding graphic images so that they are represented in lines rather than fixed bit maps, allowing an image, as on a computer display screen, to be rotated or proportionally scaled. The representation of separate shapes such as lines, polygons and text, and groups of such objects, as opposed to bitmaps. The advantage of vector graphics (“drawing”) programs over bitmap (“paint”) editors is that multiple overlapping elements can be manipulated independently without using differenet layers for each one. It is also easier to render an object at different sizes and to transform it in other ways without worrying about image resolution and pixels. [computer]

    Type of image graphic commonly used by designers when creating for print, packaging, and product design. A printer will often ask for a vector graphic instead of a bitmap graphic to ensure maximum quality, especially if resizing is required.

    X

    Xenoy
    The Xenoy* alloy is a blend of semi-crystalline polyester (typically polybutylene terephthalate, PBT, or polyethylene terephthalate, PET) and polycarbonate (PC). The Xenoy resin family offers good chemical resistance, great impact resistance even at low temperatures, heat resistance, and outstanding aesthetic and flow characteristics. Xenoy alloys offer outstanding performance in applications that are exposed to harsh conditions, or that require a high degree of toughness. [plastic/chemical charateristic]
    Used in the Pelican Adventure Series of cases and lights

    Y

    Yarn
    (see Denier) [fabric charateristic]
    A tall tale. [humorous extra defintion]

    Speaking a common language can be helpful, but when it comes to workplace and environmental safety it is vital.

    We have compiled (are compiling) this list of important definitions to information and products we carry in our store and related industries we serve. Our Industrial safety department might be of interest in the store.

    You might also be interested in the CoTradeCo ratings, regulations, types, classes, and standards resource page or the Glossary of knife materials and manufacturing terms

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    Category tags used in the glossary

    • abbreviation
    • air quality
    • compliance
    • computer
    • ergonomic characteristics
    • fabric characteristics
    • electrical
    • energy
    • fire
    • food safety
    • plastic/chemical charateristic
    • standards
    • thermal
    • trademarked technology

    As the glossary grows we will continue to seek ways to improve it. If you ever can’t find a term don’t hesitate to ask us. If you have suggestions on how to make the glossary or CoTradeCo better in general we would love to hear from you.


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